Physically Explaining Japan’s Natural Disaster

Amidst a rush of news stories covering the recent triple-disaster in Japan, it is often hard to fully understand all of what has happened merely from reading about it in popular publications. Three physics faculty members held a special forum to discuss the recent disaster in Japan, and specifically the ongoing nuclear crisis at the Fukushima plant.

Assistant Professor of Physics Josh Grossman explained what happens to the Earth and water during an earthquake and tsunami. All earthquakes are caused by pressure buildup as plates of the Earth’s crust push against each other and become stuck. An earthquake is what happens when these plates suddenly become unstuck and move around. On March 11, that compressed energy was violently released in the form of a magnitude 9.0 earthquake, moving Japan and North America eight feet closer to each other.

“A lot of the time it’s hard to wrap our heads around the way a tsunami behaves,” explained Grossman. A tsunami isn’t just a giant wave that heads for shore. It starts out as a barely-perceptible bulge in the ocean, though underneath a shock wave of water is traveling at hundreds of miles an hour, almost as fast as a jet plane. As that shock wave reaches the shore, the sea floor bottom compresses the shock wave into those towering waves that we all think of as a tsunami.

“When the quake hits, the power plants shut down, as a basic safety measure,” explained Assistant Professor of Physics Erin De Pree in her talk about the responses to the disaster. “Then the tsunami hit. This was a problem.”

The tsunami knocked out Fukushima’s backup generators. Four hours after the earthquake and tsunami had struck,  the plant was forced to switch to battery power. The most important thing that electricity did at the power plant was keep chambers filled with waste, called spent fuel pools, properly cooled. After the backup generators were lost, all the energy from the batteries was spent keeping the spent fuel pools from overheating.

“It was scarier than Three Mile Island, because the power shut off in the control room to conserve electricity for cooling the reactor,” said De Pree. The control room was dark, and operators could not read any direct readouts from sensors in the reactor. After less than a day, these backup batteries ran out of power and there was nothing to keep the spent fuel from overheating except the pools of water that surrounded the spend fuel — which began to boil. Since then, all efforts that the Japanese government and Tokyo Electric have made have involved keeping these spent fuel pools from boiling away all the water and risking a nuclear meltdown.

The Fukushima crisis was not the same as the crises at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl. “This is the first time spent fuel pools have been newsworthy since the 1950s.”

Why use nuclear energy at all then, if it’s so dangerous? “If you use one gram of Uranium-235 (U-235) you have 1 megawatt for a day,” said Professor of Physics Katsunori Mita. For the same amount of energy in coal, explained Mita, you would need 2.6 pounds, over a thousand times more in weight. Plus, using U-235, the spent fuel will be converted into Plutonium 239 – which is usable as a nuclear power source. “An amazing thing about nuclear energy [is] you can make more fuel than it consumes,” said Mita.

On top of that, nuclear energy is normally not so dangerous. “When the splitting of the nucleus occurs, enormous amounts of power are released, [but] the reactor cannot become a bomb. That’s impossible. There is not enough uranium,” concluded Mita.

 

On Oxford and the Changing Face of Education: A Conversation With Maggie

I recently spoke with Jane Margaret “Maggie” O’Brien, the former president of St. Mary’s, about what she’s been involved with lately. She stepped down from the college in July of 2009 and began working for Oxford University’s international program, the College for Medieval and Renaissance Studies (CMRS).

The Point News: Fill me in on what you’re doing for CMRS.

Former president Jane Margaret O’Brien: Over the last three years, I’ve been working with John Fennely, who is the Principle and founder of CMRS. I met John in 1997. [When I left St. Mary’s] I had fulfilled 18 years as a president.

I’ve seen a remarkable broadening of the curriculum which we did in 2002 [as well as formal agreements to send a number of students to CMRS]. Fennely’s goals are to develop a Western Traditions curriculum and a research center specifically for CMRS students.

TPN: Why are you in the country? I thought you’d be in Britain most of the time.

JMO: My job is the executive Director in the U.S. I love my job and the people I’m working with. When I stepped down I spent a great deal of time coordinating a funding effort… [I’m] currently working with Keble college [of Oxford University, regarding the partnership between CMRS and Keble].

TPN: I’ve heard from different students of CMRS that it can be a little cloistered.

JMO: That’s a very significant reason that CMRS has partnered with Keble. Keble has very robust programs in Athletics and Theatre, to name a few. There was a report last Spring out of a 3-person committee that was not constructive in its presentation… the Dougherty Committee report was less constructive for John moving forward. However, [another report] the Middlebury Report was very positive.
It’s up to St. Mary’s whether they wish to keep sending students with ease to Oxford. The alternate would be University of Bristol or Nottingham. Oxford is like the center of the universe, it’s very international, [and] the value of being part of the Consortium would be the ease with which to send people there.

TPN: What would you say are the differences between what you’re doing now with CMRS and what you did at St. Mary’s?

JMO: I understand how faculty construct international education in the curriculum better than before. I enjoy that type of work. That means reconnecting with people […] who are part of the CMRS family. Every college, every University, has its own style… [Keble and CMRS] function differently than most colleges in the US because of the tutorial system. And you see the value in it. The tutorial system is pretty cool because the student is on the spot every week, presenting their work. What struck me most about education was the incredible importance of in the class and out of the class education.

TPN: Any other thoughts?

JMO: When you step away from college education you can see it more clearly. Higher education isn’t in the forefront of using media as effectively as we can. I’ll never forget a conversation I had with the Vice President of the SGA after Virginia Tech. I asked Meg, grade us, how did we do. And the startling thing was that she got most of her information about what had happened from facebook.
Another thing I’ve become more aware of is that the pattern of learning is in rapid flux. There is no surprise that [as we progress] the 4-year gap becomes very noticeable.

DR. GENTRY: USING MATH TO IMPROVE KIDNEY TRANSPLANTS

A conversation in the car with her husband, which took all of a few minutes, is what Dr. Sommer Gentry said got her started on a problem she has now been working on for 6 years.

The problem is easy enough to explain: basically, it can be really tough to get a kidney if you need one. Kidneys are the most common organ transplant, and although kidney donations are growing, so is the demand for kidneys. Most patients who need a kidney can find someone to donate one to them; after all, we all have an extra.

But about a third of the time, the person who wants to give you a kidney just can’t. The main reason is that some blood types are very accepting of organs of a different blood type and others are not. Sometimes and some places, this means the doctor will just send you home.

In to this problem comes Dr. Sommer Gentry, who’s mathematician with a focus in optimization who’s affiliated with Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Dr. Gentry’s system of matching kidney donors to patients in need of a kidney can show how much of a missed opportunity sending home potential kidney donors really is.

In many cases, having a family member donate a kidney is the preferred way to replace a kidney. However, it’s not always that simple: sometimes even family members are incompatible. “But we have another family somewhere else in the world,” said Gentry. “So what I should do is get the two families together” and exchange kidneys.

This is called Kidney Pair Donation, where two donors give kidneys simultaneously and then trade them for their patients.

However, it’s illegal to give a kidney for compensation, and some worried that an exchange of kidneys violated this law. “In fact, there were hospitals refusing to do this because no one had told them it was legal,” said Gentry. The first step in the process was getting the practice of exchanging one kidney for the other out of a legal grey area.

Finally, several years ago, Congress passed a law allowing the practice. Gentry was in business.
Kidney Pair Donation is complicated enough with all the different blood types to consider, but sometimes a simple match between two donor/patient pairs is not enough, and triangles of three pairs are necessary. Gentry’s forte came in when optimizing giant graphs so that these more complicated kidney donations could happen.

This is where one kidney is not directly exchanged for another, but instead traded along a chain so that each patient gets the kidney that he or she needs.

Johns Hopkins first had a board of magnets, then a program that printed all possible combinations of patient/donor which then needed to be combed through – by hand – to find the ones which would actually work. The problem was that the standard operating procedure at the time, called Arrival Order Matching, wasn’t working for many patients.

Arrival Order Matching was a first-come, first-served approach which ended up with the patients who were easy to match getting matched soon after they checked into the hospital, with those hard to match often left out in the cold.

“Literally no one had recognized that there was an optimization problem to solve,” she said.

But if all the donors and patients were added into Gentry’s data set before matching pairs were chosen, then more patients would get correctly matched. “We won’t be able to see all these connections if we use Arrival Order Matching.”

Instead, she used Maximum Cardinality Matching, which waits for people to show up, and “the faster we can sign people up for it, the faster we’ll find matches.” The more, the merrier.
Gentry is now working with United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to make a national kidney sharing list.

As of Oct. 2010, there are over 100 thousand people on waiting lists for organs. Gentry’s work will certainly not go to waste.

Rowan Copley ‘Likes’ “The Social Network”

Photo Courtesy of thesocialnetworkthemovie.com
Photo Courtesy of thesocialnetworkthemovie.com

When I walked in to see The Social Network, I wasn’t really too concerned that it was going to be some super-sexified techno-romp like Hackers, the 1990s action flick. While Hackers was a whiz-banging good time, it existed in a glittering parallel universe where computer hackers clever enough could easily put on a light show with a skyscraper, or do any number of absurd things, through this new technology called the World Wide Web. I wanted a history that didn’t need to sex up its material to make it interesting.

But in actuality this movie isn’t about the technology, or really about the Internet at all. From the very first scene, where Mark Zuckerberg (played by Michael Cera doppelganger Jesse Eisenberg) gets dumped by his girlfriend (played by Rooney Mara), the film’s focus is squarely on Zuckerberg, where it remains for the rest of the movie.

And yeah, it’s a well-crafted film, one which claims to only be a dramatization of history (though real-life Zuckerberg denies that it is at all factual). It moves quickly, most of the scenes are beautifully dark (don’t forget that director David Fincher made Fight Club), and I am really impressed by Eisenberg’s portrayal of Zuckerberg.

Without a good actor portraying the guy, Zuckerberg’s absolute absence of tact or apparent emotion probably would have drowned out any empathy we feel for him.

Zuckerberg’s character is still shockingly arrogant, however, which makes it difficult to side with him when things start to get ugly and people start vying for a piece of the $16 billion Facebook pie. Actually, this aloof computer genius seems so fundamentally anti-social that you have to start wondering how the hell he ever ended up inventing Facebook, one of the most social inventions ever.

But that’s about as far as the filmmakers take you into Zuckerberg’s psyche, before reeling you back in with the movie’s other major players, notably including Justin Timberlake’s roguish Sean Parker, the founder of Napster who ends up leaving a major mark in Facebook’s seminal years, and Andrew Garfield’s Eduardo Saverin, Zuckerberg’s close (and perhaps betrayed) friend and Facebook’s CFO.

I enjoyed the movie because it didn’t feel fake, and I’d recommend it because it’s not trying to propagate any message. Go see it because it’s a well-told story about this crazy-smart guy who accidentally invented something almost everyone loves.

No Leaps and Bounds in Internet Speed Increase

Images Courtesy of Campus Technology Student Services.
Images Courtesy of Campus Technology Student Services.
Annoyingly laggy Internet speeds on campus might be short-lived, due to a soon-to-be upgraded infrastructure – or, on the other hand, could just continue. Although the College’s Internet speed is set to more than double in October, from 45 megabits to 100, this might not do a lot to speed up the most bandwidth-intense activity of Internet browsing.

According to Jeff Ranta, the Assistant Director of Network Services, the biggest bandwidth hog is streaming video. “That’s what’s really eating up most of it.” And Ranta thinks that the increased Internet speed will only help somewhat. “Once we get this 100 megabit connection, it will be nice, but it will only be a slight increase.”

The College pays its Internet Service Provider (ISP), the University of Maryland Academic Telecommunications System, for its current DS3 (or T-3) connection. But Ranta said it would only cost twice as much for the College to get an Internet connection 20 times as fast as what it currently has.

What’s the holdup, then?

“Our problem is Verizon has the only leased line that comes down to campus. … We’re waiting on Verizon to install necessary equipment in place to support 100 Megabits (download speed).”

Verizon would also need to support the gigabit connection, should the College be willing to pay. “It’s all a question of what Verizon can support… and what the College can pay.”
Ranta said he thought if the College could patch through to gigabit speeds, then the needs of students and faculty – and, increasingly, classes – would be satiated for some time.

This could be done through a partnering with others in the county to pay for the laying of a fiber optical cable. Then, St. Marys’ Internet connection would rival – and best – some of the far larger Colleges in Maryland.

“[It] might take 10 years to make back the cost, but once we have it we have it. There’s not really a limit of the amount you can push through fiber,” just a limit to the infrastructure supporting the fiber optical cable.

New Semester, New Staff

This summer, St. Mary’s has seen more than half a dozen faculty and administration leave the school, most notably former President Maggie O’Brien. In response, a wave of new people has swept in to St. Mary’s on the heels of President Joseph Urgo.

One high-ranking school official who left office was the veteran head of St. Mary’s Marketing and Public Relations, Marc Apter. Apter, who had been with the school since 1999, left in June. He is president of his own startup consultancy, Image Power, and is looking for work in the greater Washington, D.C. area.

Apter has not been replaced yet. In fact, the duties of the entire Public Relations department – an office of three to four who wrote press releases and promoted the school’s image – have been absorbed into the duties of the Office of Publications and Media Relations, the same college department which publishes the Mulberry Tree and River Gazette.

Katie Lanham, who worked under Apter and left the school soon after he did, said she was surprised when she heard that he had left. However, she said that the College could do away with its public relations department altogether, given the size of St Mary’s.

“Under the conditions today, I don’t think [having a PR Office] is vital.” But Lanham said she thought Apter’s departure was related to O’Brien’s. “If Maggie were still here… yeah, he would still be here.” Lanham is now working in Lexington Park as an Editing Specialist for SAIC, a government contractor.

There have been other offices with turnover in their leadership. Tim Wolfe, head of the Financial Aid department, left in June to be Director of Financial Aid at the University of Nevada at Reno. Replacing him is Caroline Bright, formerly Associate Director of Financial Aid at Johns Hopkins School of Health.

She said Johns Hopkins’ offices are very bureaucratic, and that she feels she has come into a well-run office. “I hope any changes would just be streamlining.”

Bright said it was definitely a change to begin working at St. Mary’s from John’s Hopkins. “When I looked at the map before I came here, I just thought this is crazy… but I love the campus. I think it’s a great time to be here with the new president.”

Another school official to leave this past summer is Christophe Bornand, former Project Manager and Facilities Planner for the Office of Planning and Facilities. Bornand moved back to Los Angeles to be with his family.

“He did a wonderful job. We miss him dearly,” said Charles Jackson, Associate Vice President of Planning and Facilities. “I guess he got homesick.” Jackson said he had lots of confidence in Bornand’s successor, Luke Mowbray. “He’s going to be terrific.”

St. Mary’s also has a new police chief in town. Christopher Santiago, who formerly served as the Assistant Director of Campus Safety for Keene State College in New Hampshire since 2003. Formerly, the duties of the Director of Public Safety were handled by Derek Thornton as part of his job as Assistant Vice President of Campus Operations.

One academic department, the Philosophy and Religious Studies department, lost two professors to teach at other universities. Kate Norlock will teach Philosophy at Trent University, a public liberal arts college in Peterborough, Ontario; Devorah Schoenfeld will teach Religious Studies at Loyola University in Chicago, IL. They have been replaced by Rochele Greene and Brien Ogren, respectively.

Department Chair of Religious Studies Bjorn Krondorfer said, “The college does not pay competitive salaries for professors, unfortunately.”

There is a palpable feeling of change among those who officiate and constitute St. Mary’s. Dean of Students Laura Bayless described the school as being in a state of flow. “It’s exciting! I have a lot of hope for the future here.”

Students Stranded in Oxford Question Int’l Ed.’s Response

Students sitting down for their final exams at the College of Medieval and Renaissance Studies (CMRS) in Oxford April 15th received a rather unexpected surprise when their teachers told them that a volcano erupting in Iceland would probably cause flight delays. By the time they had finished their tests, Heathrow Airport was closing. Now, all 18 of the recently graduated Oxford alumni were stuck in limbo, unaware of when they’d be able to leave the school.

The volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, had begun erupting the previous day after eruptions in March. Authorities across Europe grounded airlines on that Thursday and Friday for fears that the volcanic ash, which covered the air above northern Europe up to 13 miles up, could cause failure in the jets’ engines. From that Thurdsay until April 21st, the Oxford students were among over five million people stranded in Europe. According to the BBC, the six-day delay cost the city of London alone £100 million.

“At first it was a little scary not being able to go home because you didn’t know when you were going to be able to leave Oxford or what was going to happen with your flight,” said junior Jacklyn Ward. “Almost everyone studying abroad was stuck at CMRS. I think a few people went to the airport to try to get a flight out but they ended up getting stuck in the airport anyways.”

“Not being able to travel home was extremely frustrating,” said junior Megan Lantz. “My mom was supposed to come and travel with me for a week in the UK but never made it because her flight was cancelled. We had to cancel all the entire trip, all of our reservations, everything, it was really upsetting. It was really frustrating to finally be finished school, to have been abroad without our friends and family for four months and then find out we couldn’t go home/they couldn’t come to us.”

“I know some people were really frustrated about not being able to get home, particularly because they had been missing home for weeks already,” said junior Julia Rocha. “On the other hand, there were at least a few people who were excited to get a couple of more days in England. Some people took the opportunity to get more traveling done by rail, while others explored Oxford a bit more.”

The College made accommodations for the students as it could. “CMRS, especially our senior tutor, was concerned that we were all stranded and was doing his best but there honestly wasn’t much he could do,” said Lantz. “They were very gracious for letting us stay at CMRS until we could get flights home and constantly wanted updates on our travel situations.”

“SMCM offered us emergency funds for food,” said Ward. “It was really easy to get the money, which was nice. We just had to ask CMRS for how much we wanted and when we wanted it by. But not many people took advantage of the emergency funds.”

Several students said they were surprised not to hear from the International Education office about their predicament sooner.

“We all felt like the IE office didn’t really care that we were stuck abroad because they hadn’t emailed the students at all,” said Ward. “They said that they had been in contact with CMRS but none of the students knew that so we were all pretty upset with the way SMCM handled the whole thing. But after we emailed the IE office saying that we felt they forgot about us, they emailed us all offering us emergency funds.”

“We were well aware that there wasn’t much they could do, and they did, like CMRS, offer us emergency funds for food until we could get home,” said Lantz. “But for the first few days when we didn’t hear from them, it was kind of like, ‘Hello? You have over a dozen students stranded over here.’”

“It was disappointing that a program that puts such emphasis on … safety and security didn’t even contact us to see if we were alright stranded in a foreign country,” said senior Ally Moore. “I would have appreciated if the day after the airports shut down they had contacted us.”

“I think the CMRS response was great,” said Rocha. “They told us on the day of our final exam that we would probably encounter problems with our flights and that should it last a while, we would not be held to the agreement that we should be gone by Saturday at noon. So, before we all even realized there was a problem, we were already reassured that we wouldn’t get sent to the curb. In terms of IE, I think I would have been completely satisfied with their response if it hadn’t been more reactive … While I think their response was a helpful one and more than you could have expected from a larger, more impersonal school, it did come a bit later than I would have hoped.”

According to LaRita Hagar, the Director of IE, CMRS was the IE office’s representative responder should any situation arise. “Where there was confusion was that our on-the-ground partner was acting on our behalf.” Hagar said she first heard about the problem on Saturday from Dean of Students Laura Bayless, and had not heard from students before that.

Hagar said that the IE office has previously dealt with problems arising from hurricanes, earthquakes, and health issues, among others. She said that students studying abroad could call Public Safety with a problem to be relayed to proper help. According to Hagar, 89 percent of incoming first-years plan on studying abroad to fulfill the Experiencing the Liberal Arts in the World requirement, so problems like these are problems that will need to be faced in the future as well.

SGA to Start Green Revolving Fund

A new bill passed by the Student Government Association (SGA) will allocate roughly $100,000 to a new fund for creating or implementing sustainable, energy-saving technologies and systems on campus. The bill, presented to the SGA by Matt Foerster, Lisa Neu, Danielle Doubt, Becky White, and SGA President Justin Perry, will create a fund for projects which save energy, and in turn money, for the school. The majority of the money saved will then go back into the fund. Students will be able to propose and modify projects using the fund.

“[Sustainability Fellow] Shane Hall had heard about revolving load funds at Macallister [College], and he helped me a lot in the gestation period,” said Perry. “We continued to run with it because I got really excited about it and so did a lot of people.”

In their presentation to the SGA, the group used the high return on investment which other schools see on their revolving funds. However, not many schools have revolving funds, and by investing the amount of money the SGA is currently, St. Mary’s College will jump onto the list of the top ten largest revolving funds at any college in the country.

The SGA will invest $100,000 in seed money, which will come from a variety of sources. Because of the SGA’s recent fiscal conservatism, it has a surplus to draw on. The SGA will also spend money from the Green Energy Allocation fund, a $25 per-student per-semester fee, which will reduce the amount spent on Renewable Energy Credits (RECs).

“I’m excited that the SGA has taken on this issue with such enthusiasm,” said senior Elizabeth Brunner. “It’s been a really amazing journey from when we passed the REC bill to now.”

Two governing bodies will control the allocation of funds. The fund will be broadly managed by an oversight board of mostly faculty, and a committee composed entirely of students. The structure will be similar to that of the Student Investment Group (SIG). The oversight board will include a representative from the Energy Performance Contract, which hires a private firm to audit energy-saving projects on campus, so that the two groups can work in tandem.

Two ideas that Perry discussed as being likely soon after the creation of Green St. Mary’s Revolving Fund (GSMRF) are reusable to-go boxes and solar trash compactors, which would noticeably reduce piles of trash outside the campus center which are currently problematic.

“Whenever you go outside there are massive piles of Styrofoam everywhere,” said first-year Michael Hullett. “St. Mary’s is not a green school.”

“We have a very evident trash problem on this campus,” agreed Perry. He pointed out that after Philadelphia put in place solar trash compactors, the city cut down on waste by 70% and was expecting to save $13 million over ten years. Implementing this same system on campus at a much smaller scale could save the college a similar percent of collection costs. The majority of the savings from that could then go back into GSMRF.

“I’ve spent most of my year securing the funding, I haven’t had as much time to plan projects,” said Perry.
“Solar is very expensive, that’s obviously one of our pie-in-the-sky goals,” he added.

GSMRF is likely to help the college get closer to reaching the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment, signed by previous St. Mary’s President Margaret O’Brien and promising the college become carbon-neutral. The next step is to bring the proposal to Tom Botzman, the vice president of business and operation, whom Perry says thinks the GSMRF is a good idea.

“It’s really small steps,” said Perry. “GSMRF is a physical embodiment of acting responsibly. I hope that GSMRF will be a model for how small colleges can make a concerted effort to promote green energy.”

Note: the article published on April 12th, 2010 did not include Lisa Neu and Matt Foerster as sponsors of the bill. The article has been changed to include their names.

Students Protest Lack of Free Food at Lecture

Crowds swelled into the hundreds of thousands
Crowds swelled into the hundreds of thousands

In a show of solidarity for hungry college students across the country, students protested last Friday outside a lecture in the Campus Center against the lack of after-lecture refreshments. About a dozen protesters congregated outside the doors of Cole Cinema to bring attention to the lack of coffee, tea and cookies usually present at lectures such as this one.

“It’s absolutely ridiculous,” said Alex Blunt, ’12. “I couldn’t believe it myself until I read the email [advertising the lecture]. ‘Refreshments will not be served,’ right there at the bottom. Are you joking?”

It appears that Bon Appetit, the usual provider of the food in question, had been told to scale back its operations. Whether that decision originated from within Bon Appeit or the campus administration is undetermined.

“I can’t tell you whose decision that was because I don’t know,” said Ron Goatsman, St. Mary’s Chief of Finance. “Somewhere along the line, somebody decided to cut back. We spent $1 million more on energy costs last year, so it makes sense to trim our budget whenever we can.” He then said as an aside that “no one likes those cookies anyway.”

But clearly there were some who missed the snacks. “What do they expect me to do? Go to a lecture and just starve?” said Theresa Russell, ’11. “This was going to be my dinner.”

Melanie Pilcher, ’11, called into question what this meant for the college as a whole. “It remains unclear whose responsibility this is,” she said as she held aloft a sign reading ‘Don’t Make Me Hangry, Bro.’ “But we want to send a clear message to the administration of this college, that we have noticed the absence of coffee and tea and those tasty cookies, and we are not going to just sit around as our snacks are taken away from us.”

Some students who went to the lecture had differing views. “I really think that we should focus on other problems on this campus, like why the men’s second floor bathroom in the library makes that really loud gurgling noise,” said Paul Malone, ’10. “Seriously, it’s really annoying.”

“Umm, I can swipe you if you want, I’ve got blocks,” said Mary Hunter, ’13, to the protesters. “Anyone?”

Dr. Chris Sparrow, who gave the lecture on poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, could not be reached for comment due to lack of caring.

This article is not real. Happy April Fools!

Periodic Review Report: What Students Do After Graduation

Every five years, a college has to undergo an accreditation called a Periodic Review Report (PRR). As part of St. Mary’s PRR, the college has released statistics gathered about, among other things, life as an alumni. All data in the graphs is as of 2006.

The administration will still be accepting feedback on the PRR until Friday, April 2nd.